Physicians Parkinson’s disease, described in 1817, for the first time. Nevertheless, the causes of nervous disease are still unknown. You can neither prevent nor cure. Modern medicine can treat the various symptoms and the quality of life of the patients individually improve.
The popular presenter, Frank Elstner, a veteran of German television entertainment, has just made public that he got three years ago, the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. With today, 77 years of age, he is a typical Affected. Because Parkinson’s disease is one of the most common neurological diseases in later life.
Approximately one percent of the more than 60-Year-old suffers in this country from the disease, when the dopamine-containing nerve decayed cells. In the over 80-Year-old even further, to around three percent.
From 2.5 to 6.1 million cases in 25 years
The number of people Affected is increasing dramatically worldwide. Thus, the number of 2.5 million patients in 1990 to 6.1 Million in 2016, has rocketed high. This is explained not only by demographic change, my Parkinson’s experts. You suspect pollutants have a negative influence of the environment, may primarily pesticides.
If the typical symptoms – Trembling of the hands, body stiff, unsteady gait and slow movements – of the already 200 years ago for the first time described the disease appearance and the diagnosis is made, usually 50 to 70 percent of the dopamine-containing nerve cells in the brain died.
Nonspecific symptoms are harbingers of
Today we know, however, that Parkinson’s makes you look much earlier, with non-specific symptoms in the whole body felt. These include depression, disorders of smell and bladder, digestion problems, or pain of various kinds. experts include has, therefore, set out the Name of idiopathic Parkinson’s syndrome for the shaking due to paralysis.
The therapy is symptom of variety of very individual. In addition to the classic Parkinson’s medications, physical therapy these include, in each case, may also have occupational therapy and speech therapy.
Belladonna as the earliest drug
In the 19th century. Century, the Doctors tried to relieve Parkinson’s symptoms with belladonna. It acts on the involuntary nervous system, what are the functions of the body and the contraction of the muscles it controls. The active ingredient is still occasionally in the treatment.
Standard Treatment: Dopamine Replacement
In General, the sick are provided with medicines, with which the lack of the Neuro-neurotransmitter is dopamine replaced. To date, the most effective method of treatment is already 50 years old.
At that time the nerve has been offered discovered dopamine and its effect. Since then, the movement restrictions can be minimized, so that the Affected can result in many years of a normal life. Life expectancy is also affected, despite incurable disease.
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L-Dopa-tablets as a therapy framework
Levodopa or L-Dopa is the chemical precursor of the body’s own Neurotransmitter. It is the blood-brain can overcome the barrier and is converted in the brain and finally to dopamine. The tablets must be taken daily. Because Levodopa works only a few hours before it is degraded by liver and nerve cells.
For younger patients: dopamine agonists as an Alternative
As a prolonged-release capsules, or as a patch dopamine agonists act for up to 24 hours. Especially in younger Parkinson’s Sufferers, they represent an Alternative to Levodopa. They imitate the body’s own neurotransmitter and stimulate the dopamine receptors of the nerve cells.
Pumping systems in advanced Parkinson’s disease
In advanced disease, the drug can be injected, similar to an insulin pump, directly under the skin. The device releases the drug evenly. A different pumping system acts directly on the small intestine. This is useful if the patient due to the stage of Disease of the stomach and swallowing activity is restricted or dementia is present. The pumps are set for the first time, is an inpatient stay in the hospital necessary.
Brain pacemaker as a recent therapeutic approach
In addition to the pumping systems of the brain pacemaker is part of the escalation therapies. In the case of a surgery, a neurosurgeon and a neurologist, place two electrode to the millimeter in the brain. Deep brain stimulation should be delayed until a few years ago for as long as possible. Today, it advises already young patients, when the first motor complications occur.
The brain pacemakers, certain areas in the brain. The defects and the disease from the balance brought-Neurons networks function better.
The surgical risk is below one percent. The preparations of the Operation time, however, are intense. The battery, which is implanted in the breast muscle or in the area of the basin, must be made at least every 20 years, replaced in the early years, there were still all five years.
Not a cure, a better quality of life
In spite of the new therapies and advances in standard therapy is not a cure, the medicine of Parkinson’s. It is a fight against the symptoms and for a better quality of life. The realistic hopes based on a further development of the drugs used and the technique used.
Hope that immune therapies
In the research for the future, however, the development of antibodies and a vaccine against Parkinson’s disease, so therapies that go beyond symptom improvement.
In the nerve cells of Parkinson’s patients, the so-called Lewy bodies are found in protein deposits. Parts of the proteins spread from cell to cell and “infect” you. You are the target of antibodies, which would act like a Parkinson’s vaccine.